一个作用庞大的获取,Linux下基本的探索命令和查
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一个作用庞大的获取,Linux下基本的探索命令和查阅音信。Linux下基本的查找命令和查看信息

查找命令和硬件信息查看是日常系统管理、维护最常的操作。下面就 Linux 的基本查找命令做一个简要的比较,并列举一些常用的硬件信息查看命令。

man 常用选项

-k 知道功能、不知道名称
-f 知道名称、不知道功能

各种查找命令比较

whereis 查找命令的可执行文件、源文件、man page路径
whatis 读取命令的描述
apropos 基于功能的查找
which 找出将要运行的命令的版本
locate 搜索文件名数据库
find 根据指定的查询条件搜索文件
find . -type f | grep -i blas
fidn . -type f -name "*.a" | grep -i blas
lsb_release -a 查看系统版本
alias 查看所有别名
ls -lh 按k、m、g查看文件

查看硬件信息

GPU信息

查看mic卡信息

sudo micinfo

查看gpu信息

sudo nvidia-smi

如何在Linux/centos下查看网卡型号,如何查看主板型号,CPU/显卡信息,硬盘型号等硬件信息

查看网卡型号

[[email protected]]# lspci | grep Ethernet
00:19.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82567V-2 Gigabit Network Connection

查看内存和cpu最直接最常用的命令:

[[email protected]]# free
total used free shared buffers cached
Mem: 3069504 528876 2540628 0 76648 396152
-/  buffers/cache: 56076 3013428
Swap: 5124692 0 5124692
[[email protected]]# cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor : 0
vendor_id : GenuineIntel
cpu family : 6
model : 23
model name : Pentium(R) Dual-Core CPU E6500 @ 2.93GHz
stepping : 10
cpu MHz : 1596.000
cache size : 2048 KB

查看硬盘信息(查看硬盘型号和硬盘序列号):

[[email protected]]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda5 2.0G 272M 1.6G 15% /
/dev/sda8 199G 188M 189G 1% /home
/dev/sda3 9.7G 1.3G 7.9G 15% /usr
/dev/sda2 9.7G 198M 9.0G 3% /var
/dev/sda1 99M 17M 77M 18% /boot

方法1:

[[email protected]]# hdparm -i /dev/sda
/dev/sda:
Model=SAMSUNG HE253GJ , FwRev=1AJ30001, SerialNo= S2B5J90ZC12060
Config={ Fixed }
RawCHS=16383/16/63, TrkSize=0, SectSize=0, ECCbytes=4
BuffType=unknown, BuffSize=16384kB, MaxMultSect=16, MultSect=?16?
CurCHS=16383/16/63, CurSects=16514064, LBA=yes, LBAsects=268435455
IORDY=on/off, tPIO={min:120,w/IORDY:120}, tDMA={min:120,rec:120}
PIO modes: pio0 pio1 pio2 pio3 pio4
DMA modes: mdma0 mdma1 mdma2
UDMA modes: udma0 udma1 udma2
AdvancedPM=yes: disabled (255) WriteCache=enabled
Drive conforms to: unknown: ATA/ATAPI-0 ATA/ATAPI-1 ATA/ATAPI-2 ATA/ATAPI-3 ATA/ATAPI-4 ATA/ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-6 ATA/ATAPI-7
* signifies the current active mode

方法2:

[[email protected]]# dmesg | grep ATA
ata1: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0xf190 ctl 0xf180 bmdma 0xf150 irq 185
ata2: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0xf170 ctl 0xf160 bmdma 0xf158 irq 185
ata1: SATA link up 3.0 Gbps (SStatus 123 SControl 300)
ata1.00: ATA-8: SAMSUNG HE253GJ, 1AJ30001, max UDMA/133
ata2: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
Vendor: ATA Model: SAMSUNG HE253GJ Rev: 1AJ3
ata3: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0xf130 ctl 0xf120 bmdma 0xf0f0 irq 185
ata4: SATA max UDMA/133 cmd 0xf110 ctl 0xf100 bmdma 0xf0f8 irq 185
ata3: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
ata4: SATA link down (SStatus 0 SControl 300)
ata5: PATA max UDMA/100 cmd 0xe040 ctl 0xe030 bmdma 0xe000 irq 177

[[email protected]]# dmidecode|more
# dmidecode 2.10
SMBIOS 2.4 present.
57 structures occupying 2318 bytes.
Table at 0x000E84B0.
Handle 0x0000, DMI type 0, 24 bytes
BIOS Information
Vendor: Intel Corp.
Version: GTG4310H.86A.0019.2009.0625.1334
Release Date: 06/25/2009

图片 1


查找命令和硬件信息查看是日常系统管理、维护最常的操作。下面就 Linux 的基本查找命令做一个简要的比...

Inxi 最初是为控制台和 IRC(网络中继聊天)开发的一个强大且优秀的命令行系统信息脚本。可以使用它获取用户的硬件和系统信息,它也用于调试或者社区技术支持工具。

Linux查看系统硬件信息

下面介绍下在centos下硬件信息的查看,在Linux下查看需要用到各种命令,不像Windows上可以非常直观地看到。

查看所有硬件的信息

1)dmidecode

2)dmesg

Dmidecode这款软件允许你在Linux 系统下获取有关硬件方面的信息。Dmidecode 遵循 SMBIOS/DMI 标准,其输出的信息包括 BIOS、系统、主板、处理器、内存、缓存等等。

一般很少用这两个命令直接查看,因为这两个命令输出的信息非常多。一般会使用管道过滤出多需要的信息进行查看或通过-t选择指定的硬件查看信息。例如:

[[email protected]~]``#dmidecode|grep-icpu````SocketDesignation:CPU1````Version:Intel(R)Core(TM)[email protected]````InternalReferenceDesignator:J2B3-CPUFAN````Description:CPUInternalTemperature

查看当前系统的版本,若是redhat,则查看的文件是/etc/redhat-release

[[email protected]~]``#cat/etc/centos-release``CentOSrelease6.5(Final)

查看当前系统是32位还是64位的

[[email protected]~]``#getconfLONG_BIT``64

CPU

1)通过lscpu查看cpu的统计信息

[[email protected]~]``#lscpu``Architecture:x86_64``#cpu架构``CPU``op``-mode(s):32-bit,64-bit``ByteOrder:LittleEndian``CPU(s):4``#逻辑cpu数``On-lineCPU(s)list:0-3``Thread(s)percore:2``#每个核心支持2个线程``Core(s)persocket:2``#每颗cpu两个核心``Socket(s):1``#总共一颗cpu``NUMAnode(s):1``VendorID:GenuineIntel``#cpu生产厂商``CPUfamily:6``Model:42``Stepping:7``CPUMHz:800.000``BogoMIPS:4589.75``Virtualization:VT-x``#支持cpu虚拟化技术``L1dcache:32K``L1icache:32K``L2cache:256K``#2级缓存``L3cache:3072K``#3级缓存``NUMAnode0CPU(s):0-3

2)/proc/cpuinfo文件中可以看到cpu的型号和最高频率

[[email protected]~]``#cat/proc/cpuinfo``processor :0``vendor_id :GenuineIntel``cpufamily :6``model :42``modelname :Intel(R)Core(TM)[email protected]``stepping :7``cpuMHz :800.000``cachesize :3072KB``......

3)也可以通过dmicecode命令通过-t选项指定cpu类型来查看(有更详细的信息)

[[email protected]~]``#dmidecode-tprocessor``#dmidecode2.11``SMBIOS2.6present.``Handle0x0004,DMI``type``4,42bytes``ProcessorInformation````SocketDesignation:CPU1````Type:CentralProcessor````Family:Corei5````Manufacturer:Intel````ID:A7060200FFFBEBBF````Signature:Type0,Family6,Model42,Stepping7````Flags:````FPU(Floating-pointuniton-chip)````VME(Virtualmodeextension)````DE(Debuggingextension)````PSE(Pagesizeextension)````TSC(Timestampcounter)````MSR(Modelspecificregisters)````PAE(Physicaladdressextension)````MCE(Machinecheckexception)````CX8(CMPXCHG8instructionsupported)````APIC(On-chipAPIChardwaresupported)````SEP(Fastsystemcall)````MTRR(Memory``type``rangeregisters)````PGE(Pageglobal``enable``)````MCA(Machinecheckarchitecture)````CMOV(Conditionalmoveinstructionsupported)````PAT(Pageattributetable)````PSE-36(36-bitpagesizeextension)````CLFSH(CLFLUSHinstructionsupported)````DS(Debugstore)````ACPI(ACPIsupported)````MMX(MMXtechnologysupported)````FXSR(FXSAVEandFXSTORinstructionssupported)````SSE(StreamingSIMDextensions)````SSE2(StreamingSIMDextensions2)````SS(Self-snoop)````HTT(Multi-threading)````TM(Thermalmonitorsupported)````PBE(Pending``break``enabled)````Version:Intel(R)Core(TM)[email protected]````Voltage:1.1V````ExternalClock:100MHz````MaxSpeed:2300MHz````CurrentSpeed:2300MHz````Status:Populated,Enabled````Upgrade:Other````L1CacheHandle:0x0005````L2CacheHandle:0x0006````L3CacheHandle:0x0007````SerialNumber:ToBeFilledByO.E.M.````AssetTag:ToBeFilledByO.E.M.````PartNumber:ToBeFilledByO.E.M.````CoreCount:2````CoreEnabled:1````ThreadCount:2````Characteristics:````64-bitcapable

内存

查看内存情况

1)

[[email protected]~]``#free-m````totalused``free``sharedbufferscached``Mem:3739224351401579``-/ buffers``/cache``:1293609``Swap:409504095

2)

[[email protected]~]``#cat/proc/meminfo``MemTotal:3828868kB``MemFree:3599240kB``Buffers:16096kB``Cached:80956kB``SwapCached:0kB``Active:44676kB``Inactive:74332kB``Active(anon):22288kB``Inactive(anon):424kB``Active(``file``):22388kB``Inactive(``file``):73908kB``......

3)通过dmicecode命令通过-t选项指定memory来查看

[[email protected]~]``#dmidecode-tmemory``#dmidecode2.11``SMBIOS2.6present.``Handle0x001D,DMI``type``16,15bytes``PhysicalMemoryArray````Location:SystemBoardOrMotherboard````Use:SystemMemory````ErrorCorrectionType:None````MaximumCapacity:16GB````ErrorInformationHandle:NotProvided````NumberOfDevices:2``Handle0x001E,DMI``type``17,28bytes``MemoryDevice````ArrayHandle:0x001D````ErrorInformationHandle:0x0000````TotalWidth:Unknown````DataWidth:Unknown````Size:NoModuleInstalled````FormFactor:DIMM````Set:None````Locator:DIMM_A````BankLocator:BANK0````Type:Unknown````TypeDetail:None````Speed:Unknown````Manufacturer:NotSpecified````SerialNumber:NotSpecified````AssetTag:NotSpecified````PartNumber:NotSpecified````Rank:Unknown``Handle0x001F,DMI``type``17,28bytes``MemoryDevice````ArrayHandle:0x001D````ErrorInformationHandle:0x0000````TotalWidth:64bits````DataWidth:64bits````Size:4096MB````FormFactor:SODIMM````Set:None````Locator:DIMM_B````BankLocator:BANK2````Type:DDR3````TypeDetail:Synchronous````Speed:1333MHz````Manufacturer:80CE````SerialNumber:21255F39````AssetTag:01112100````PartNumber:M471B5273DH0-CH9````Rank:Unknown

上面显示了最大支持的内存大小:16G,一共有两个内存插槽,用了一个。以及内存的详细信息,包括内存类型,位宽,大小,频率.......

磁盘

[[email protected]~]``#lsblk``NAMEMAJ:MINRMSIZEROTYPEMOUNTPOINT``sda8:00465.8G0disk``├─sda18:10200M0part``/boot``├─sda28:2030G0part``/usr``├─sda38:305G0part/``├─sda48:401K0part``├─sda58:5050G0part``/data``├─sda68:6030G0part``/usr/local``├─sda78:7020G0part``/var``├─sda88:8010G0part``/home``├─sda98:9010G0part``/tmp``└─sda108:1004G0part[SWAP]``sr011:011024M0rom

可以看到各个分区的大小及挂载情况,比较直观,若要观察某个分区上的文件系统情况,可使用tune2fs -l /dev/sdax,当然这个不是硬件级别的查看了。

[[email protected]~]``#tune2fs-l/dev/sda5``tune2fs1.41.12(17-May-2010)``Filesystemvolumename:<none>``Lastmountedon:<notavailable>``FilesystemUUID:273a5dca-3d41-47e0-b48b-ebd7a1ae98ed``Filesystemmagicnumber:0xEF53``Filesystemrevision``#:1(dynamic)``Filesystemfeatures:has_journalext_attrresize_inodedir_indexfiletypeneeds_recoveryextentflex_bgsparse_superlarge_filehuge_fileuninit_bgdir_nlinkextra_isize``Filesystemflags:signed_directory_hash``Default``mount``options:user_xattracl``Filesystemstate:clean``......

若要查看更详细的硬盘和分区信息:

[[email protected]~]``#fdisk-l``Disk``/dev/sda``:500.1GB,500107862016bytes``255heads,63sectors``/track``,60801cylinders``Units=cylindersof16065*512=8225280bytes``Sectorsize(logical``/physical``):512bytes/512bytes``I``/O``size(minimum``/optimal``):512bytes/512bytes``Diskidentifier:0x00032c3d````DeviceBootStartEndBlocksIdSystem``/dev/sda1``*12620480083Linux``Partition1doesnotendoncylinderboundary.``/dev/sda2``2639423145728083Linux``/dev/sda3``39424595524288083Linux``/dev/sda4``4595608024514805765Extended``/dev/sda5``4595111225242880083Linux``/dev/sda6``11123150393145728083Linux``/dev/sda7``15039176502097152083Linux``/dev/sda8``17650189551048576083Linux``/dev/sda9``18955202611048576083Linux``/dev/sda10``2026120783419430482Linuxswap/Solaris

查看各分区的使用情况:

[[email protected]~]``#df-h``FilesystemSizeUsedAvailUse%Mountedon``/dev/sda3``5.0G377M4.4G8%/``tmpfs1.9G01.9G0%``/dev/shm``/dev/sda1``194M31M153M17%``/boot``/dev/sda5``50G775M46G2%``/data``/dev/sda8``9.9G151M9.2G2%``/home``/dev/sda9``9.9G151M9.2G2%``/tmp``/dev/sda2``30G5.0G24G18%``/usr``/dev/sda6``30G173M28G1%``/usr/local``/dev/sda7``20G2.3G17G12%``/var

网卡

通过lspci查看pci设备,通过管道过滤就可以找到网卡信息

[[email protected]~]``#lspci|grep-inet``05:00.0Ethernetcontroller:RealtekSemiconductorCo.,Ltd.RTL8101E``/RTL8102E``PCIExpressFastEthernetcontroller(rev05)``09:00.0Networkcontroller:IntelCorporationCentrinoWireless-N1030[RainbowPeak](rev34)

Ethernet controller是有线网卡,Network controller是无线网卡。

可以用ethtool命令查看某个网络接口的详细信息

[[email protected]~]``#ethtoolp1p1``Settings``for``p1p1:````Supportedports:[TPMII]````Supportedlinkmodes:10baseT``/Half``10baseT``/Full````100baseT``/Half``100baseT``/Full````Supportedpauseframeuse:No````Supportsauto-negotiation:Yes````Advertisedlinkmodes:10baseT``/Half``10baseT``/Full````100baseT``/Half``100baseT``/Full````Advertisedpauseframeuse:SymmetricReceive-only````Advertisedauto-negotiation:Yes````Linkpartneradvertisedlinkmodes:10baseT``/Half``10baseT``/Full````100baseT``/Half``100baseT``/Full````Linkpartneradvertisedpauseframeuse:Symmetric````Linkpartneradvertisedauto-negotiation:Yes````Speed:100Mb``/s````Duplex:Full````Port:MII````PHYAD:0````Transceiver:internal````Auto-negotiation:on````SupportsWake-on:pumbg````Wake-on:g````Currentmessagelevel:0x00000033(51)````drvprobeifdownifup````Linkdetected:``yes

加上-i可查看网卡驱动:

[[email protected]~]``#ethtool-ip1p1``driver:r8169``#这个就是驱动程序``version:2.3LK-NAPI``firmware-version:rtl_nic``/rtl8105e-1``.fw``bus-info:0000:05:00.0``supports-statistics:``yes``supports-``test``:no``supports-eeprom-access:no``supports-register-dump:``yes``supports-priv-flags:no

若要查看所有的网络接口(ip link show,ifocnfig -a):

[[email protected]~]``#iplinkshow``1:lo:<LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP>mtu16436qdiscnoqueuestateUNKNOWN````link``/loopback``00:00:00:00:00:00brd00:00:00:00:00:00``2:p1p1:<BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP>mtu1500qdiscpfifo_faststateUPqlen1000````link``/ether``18:03:73:66:66:eebrdff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff``3:wlan0:<NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP>mtu1500qdiscmqstateDOWNqlen1000````link``/ether``ac:72:89:04:ea:84brdff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

[[email protected]~]``#ifconfig``br0Linkencap:EthernetHWaddr18:03:73:66:66:EE````inetaddr:192.168.0.165Bcast:192.168.0.255Mask:255.255.255.0````inet6addr:fe80::1a03:73ff:fe66:66ee``/64``Scope:Link``.......

查看所有pci设备信息(-v[详细信息],-vv[更详细信息]):

[[email protected]~]``#lspci``00:00.0Hostbridge:IntelCorporation2ndGenerationCoreProcessorFamilyDRAMController(rev09)``#主板芯片``00:01.0PCIbridge:IntelCorporationXeonE3-1200``/2nd``GenerationCoreProcessorFamilyPCIExpressRootPort(rev09)``00:02.0VGAcompatiblecontroller:IntelCorporation2ndGenerationCoreProcessorFamilyIntegratedGraphicsController(rev09)``00:16.0Communicationcontroller:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyMEIController``#1(rev04)``00:1a.0USBcontroller:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyUSBEnhancedHostController``#2(rev05)#usb控制器``00:1b.0Audiodevice:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyHighDefinitionAudioController(rev05)``#声卡``00:1c.0PCIbridge:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyPCIExpressRootPort1(revb5)``#pci插槽``00:1c.1PCIbridge:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyPCIExpressRootPort2(revb5)``00:1c.3PCIbridge:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyPCIExpressRootPort4(revb5)``00:1c.4PCIbridge:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyPCIExpressRootPort5(revb5)``00:1c.7PCIbridge:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyPCIExpressRootPort8(revb5)``00:1d.0USBcontroller:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilyUSBEnhancedHostController``#1(rev05)``00:1f.0ISAbridge:IntelCorporationHM67ExpressChipsetFamilyLPCController(rev05)``00:1f.2SATAcontroller:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamily6portSATAAHCIController(rev05)``#硬盘接口``00:1f.3SMBus:IntelCorporation6Series``/C200``SeriesChipsetFamilySMBusController(rev05)``01:00.0VGAcompatiblecontroller:NVIDIACorporationGF108M[GeForceGT525M](reva1)``#显卡``01:00.1Audiodevice:NVIDIACorporationGF108HighDefinitionAudioController(reva1)``#声卡``05:00.0Ethernetcontroller:RealtekSemiconductorCo.,Ltd.RTL8101E``/RTL8102E``PCIExpressFastEthernetcontroller(rev05)``#有线网卡``09:00.0Networkcontroller:IntelCorporationCentrinoWireless-N1030[RainbowPeak](rev34)``#无线网卡``0b:00.0USBcontroller:NECCorporationuPD720200USB3.0HostController(rev04)

[[email protected]~]``#dmidecode-taf``Invalid``type``keyword:af``Valid``type``keywordsare:````bios````system````baseboard````chassis````processor````memory````cache````connector````slot

也可以通过dmidecode命令指定上面的这些硬件来查看相关信息!!!

下面介绍下在centos下硬件信息的查看,在Linux下查看需要用到各种命令,不像Windows上可以非常直观地看到。 查看所有...

使用 Inxi 可以很容易的获取所有的硬件信息:硬盘、声卡、显卡、网卡、CPU 和 RAM 等。同时也能够获取大量的操作系统信息,比如硬件驱动、Xorg 、桌面环境、内核、GCC 版本,进程,开机时间和内存等信息。

运行在命令行和 IRC 上的 Inxi 输出略有不同,IRC 上会有一些可供用户使用的默认过滤器和颜色选项。支持的 IRC 客户端有:BitchX、Gaim/Pidgin、ircII、Irssi、 Konversation、 Kopete、 KSirc、 KVIrc、 Weechat 和 Xchat 以及其它的一些客户端,它们具有展示内置或外部 Inxi 输出的能力。

 

在 Linux 系统上安装 Inxi

大多数主流 Linux 发行版的仓库中都有 Inxi ,包括大多数 BSD 系统。

  1. $ sudoapt-get install inxi [OnDebian/Ubuntu/LinuxMint]
  2. $ sudoyum install inxi [OnCentOS/RHEL/Fedora]
  3. $ sudo dnf install inxi [OnFedora22 ]

在使用 Inxi 之前,用下面的命令查看 Inxi 所有依赖和推荐的应用,以及各种目录,并显示需要安装哪些包来支持给定的功能。

  1. $ inxi --recommends

Inxi 的输出:

  1. inxi will now begin checking for the programs it needs to operate.First a check of the main languages and tools
  2. inxi uses.Pythonis only for debugging data collection.
  3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4. Bash version:4.3.42(1)-release
  5. Gawk version:4.1.3,
  6. Sed version:
  7. Sudo version:1.8.16
  8. Python version:2.7.12
  9. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  10. TestOne:RequiredSystemDirectories(LinuxOnly).
  11. If one of these system directories is missing, inxi cannot operate:
  12. /proc.......................................................................Present
  13. /sys........................................................................Present
  14. All the directories are present.
  15. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  16. TestTwo:RequiredCoreApplications.
  17. If one of these applications is missing, inxi cannot operate:
  18. df(info: partition data).................................................../bin/df
  19. gawk(info: core tool)....................................................../usr/bin/gawk
  20. grep(info: string search)................................................../bin/grep
  21. lspci (info: hardware data)................................................./usr/bin/lspci
  22. ps(info: process data)...................................................../bin/ps
  23. readlink..................................................................../bin/readlink
  24. sed(info: string replace)................................................../bin/sed
  25. tr(info: character replace)................................................/usr/bin/tr
  26. uname(info: kernel data).................................................../bin/uname
  27. wc(info: word character count)............................................./usr/bin/wc
  28. All the applications are present.
  29. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  30. TestThree:ScriptRecommendsforGraphicsFeatures.
  31. NOTE:If you donotuse X these donot matter (like a headless server).Otherwise,if one of these applications
  32. is missing, inxi will have incomplete output:
  33. glxinfo (info:-G glx info)................................................./usr/bin/glxinfo
  34. xdpyinfo (info:-G multi screen resolution)................................./usr/bin/xdpyinfo
  35. xprop (info:-S desktop data).............................................../usr/bin/xprop
  36. xrandr (info:-G single screen resolution)................................../usr/bin/xrandr
  37. All the applications are present.
  38. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  39. TestFour:ScriptRecommendsforRemainingFeatures.
  40. If one of these applications is missing, inxi will have incomplete output:
  41. dig (info:-i first wlan ipdefaulttest).................................../usr/bin/dig
  42. dmidecode (info:-M ifno sys machine data;-m memory)....................../usr/sbin/dmidecode
  43. file(info:-o unmounted file system)......................................./usr/bin/file
  44. hciconfig (info:-n -i bluetooth data)....................................../bin/hciconfig
  45. hddtemp (info:-Dx show hdd temp).........................................../usr/sbin/hddtemp
  46. ifconfig(info:-i ip lan-deprecated)......................................./sbin/ifconfig
  47. ip(info:-i ip lan)......................................................../sbin/ip
  48. sensors (info:-s sensors output).........................................../usr/bin/sensors
  49. strings(info:-I sysvinit version)........................................./usr/bin/strings
  50. lsusb (info:-A usb audio;-N usb networking)................................/usr/bin/lsusb
  51. modinfo (info:-Ax,-Nxmodule version)....................................../sbin/modinfo
  52. runlevel(info:-I runlevel)................................................/sbin/runlevel
  53. sudo(info:-Dx hddtemp-user;-o file-user)................................../usr/bin/sudo
  54. uptime(info:-I uptime(check which package owns Debian))................../usr/bin/uptime
  55. All the applications are present.
  56. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  57. TestFive:ScriptRecommendsforRemainingFeatures.
  58. One of these downloaders needed for options -i/-w/-W (-U/-![11-15],if supported):
  59. wget(info:-i wan ip;-w/-W;-U/-![11-15](if supported)).................../usr/bin/wget
  60. curl (info:-i wan ip;-w/-W;-U/-![11-15](if supported)).................../usr/bin/curl
  61. All the applications are present.
  62. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  63. TestSix:SystemDirectoriesforVariousInformation.
  64. (Unless otherwise noted, these are for GNU/Linux systems)
  65. If one of these directories is missing, inxi may have incomplete output:
  66. /sys/class/dmi/id(info:-M system, motherboard, bios)......................Present
  67. /dev (info:-l,-u,-o,-p,-P,-D disk partition data)..........................Present
  68. /dev/disk/by-label (info:-l,-o,-p,-P partition labels).....................Present
  69. /dev/disk/by-uuid (info:-u,-o,-p,-P partition uuid)........................Present
  70. All the directories are present.
  71. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  72. TestSeven:SystemFilesforVariousInformation.
  73. (Unless otherwise noted, these are for GNU/Linux systems)
  74. If one of these files is missing, inxi may have incomplete output:
  75. /proc/asound/cards (info:-A sound card data)...............................Present
  76. /proc/asound/version (info:-A ALSA data)...................................Present
  77. /proc/cpuinfo (info:-C cpu data)...........................................Present
  78. /etc/lsb-release (info:-S distro version data [deprecated])................Present
  79. /proc/mdstat (info:-R mdraid data).........................................Present
  80. /proc/meminfo (info:-I memory data)........................................Present
  81. /etc/os-release (info:-S distro version data)..............................Present
  82. /proc/partitions (info:-p,-P partitions data)..............................Present
  83. /proc/modules (info:-G module data)........................................Present
  84. /proc/mounts (info:-P,-p partition advanced data)..........................Present
  85. /var/run/dmesg.boot (info:-D,-d disk data [BSD only])......................Missing
  86. /proc/scsi/scsi (info:-D Advanced hard disk data [used rarely])............Present
  87. /var/log/Xorg.0.log(info:-G graphics driver load status)..................Present
  88. The following files are missing from your system:
  89. File:/var/run/dmesg.boot
  90. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  91. All tests completed.

 

Inxi 工具的基本用法

用下面的基本用法获取系统和硬件的详细信息。

 

获取 Linux 系统信息

Inix 不加任何选项就能输出下面的信息:CPU 、内核、开机时长、内存大小、硬盘大小、进程数、登录终端以及 Inxi 版本。

  1. $ inxi
  2. CPU~Dual core IntelCore i5-4210U(-HT-MCP-) speed/max~2164/2700MHzKernel~4.4.0-21-generic x86_64 Up~3:15Mem~3122.0/7879.9MB HDD~1000.2GB(20.0% used)Procs~234Client~Shell inxi~2.2.35

 

获取内核和发行版本信息

使用 Inxi 的 -S 选项查看本机系统信息(主机名、内核信息、桌面环境和发行版):

  1. $ inxi -S
  2. System:Host:TecMintKernel:4.4.0-21-generic x86_64 (64 bit)Desktop:Cinnamon3.0.7
  3. Distro:LinuxMint18Sarah

 

获取电脑机型

使用 -M 选项查看机型(笔记本/台式机)、产品 ID 、机器版本、主板、制造商和 BIOS 等信息:

  1. $ inxi -M
  2. Machine:System: LENOVO (portable) product:20354 v:Lenovo Z50-70
  3. Mobo: LENOVO model:Lancer5A5 v:31900059WINBios: LENOVO v:9BCN26WWdate:07/31/2014

 

获取 CPU 及主频信息

使用 -C 选项查看完整的 CPU 信息,包括每核 CPU 的频率及可用的最大主频。

  1. $ inxi -C
  2. CPU:Dual core IntelCore i5-4210U(-HT-MCP-) cache:3072 KB
  3. clock speeds: max:2700MHz1:1942MHz2:1968MHz3:1734MHz4:1710MHz

 

获取显卡信息

使用 -G 选项查看显卡信息,包括显卡类型、显示服务器、系统分辨率、GLX 渲染器和 GLX 版本等等(LCTT 译注: GLX 是一个 X 窗口系统的 OpenGL 扩展)。

  1. $ inxi -G
  2. Graphics:Card-1:IntelHaswell-ULT IntegratedGraphicsController
  3. Card-2: NVIDIA GM108M [GeForce840M]
  4. DisplayServer: X.Org1.18.4 drivers: intel (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)Resolution:1920x1080@60.05hz
  5. GLX Renderer:Mesa DRI IntelHaswellMobile GLX Version:3.0Mesa11.2.0

 

获取声卡信息

使用 -A 选项查看声卡信息:

  1. $ inxi -A
  2. Audio:Card-1Intel8Series HD AudioController driver: snd_hda_intel Sound: ALSA v: k4.4.0-21-generic
  3. Card-2IntelHaswell-ULT HD AudioController driver: snd_hda_intel

 

获取网卡信息

使用 -N 选项查看网卡信息:

  1. $ inxi -N
  2. Network:Card-1:Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI ExpressGigabitEthernetController driver: r8169
  3. Card-2:Realtek RTL8723BE PCIeWirelessNetworkAdapter driver: rtl8723be

 

获取硬盘信息

使用 -D 选项查看硬盘信息(大小、ID、型号):

  1. $ inxi -D
  2. Drives: HDD TotalSize:1000.2GB(20.0% used) ID-1:/dev/sda model: ST1000LM024_HN size:1000.2GB

 

获取简要的系统信息

使用 -b 选项显示上述信息的简要系统信息:

  1. $ inxi -b
  2. System:Host:TecMintKernel:4.4.0-21-generic x86_64 (64 bit)Desktop:Cinnamon3.0.7
  3. Distro:LinuxMint18Sarah
  4. Machine:System: LENOVO (portable) product:20354 v:Lenovo Z50-70
  5. Mobo: LENOVO model:Lancer5A5 v:31900059WINBios: LENOVO v:9BCN26WWdate:07/31/2014
  6. CPU:Dual core IntelCore i5-4210U(-HT-MCP-) speed/max:2018/2700MHz
  7. Graphics:Card-1:IntelHaswell-ULT IntegratedGraphicsController
  8. Card-2: NVIDIA GM108M [GeForce840M]
  9. DisplayServer: X.Org1.18.4 drivers: intel (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)Resolution:1920x1080@60.05hz
  10. GLX Renderer:Mesa DRI IntelHaswellMobile GLX Version:3.0Mesa11.2.0
  11. Network:Card-1:Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI ExpressGigabitEthernetController driver: r8169
  12. Card-2:Realtek RTL8723BE PCIeWirelessNetworkAdapter driver: rtl8723be
  13. Drives: HDD TotalSize:1000.2GB(20.0% used)
  14. Info:Processes:233Uptime:3:23Memory:3137.5/7879.9MBClient:Shell(bash) inxi:2.2.35

 

获取硬盘分区信息

使用 -p 选项输出完整的硬盘分区信息,包括每个分区的分区大小、已用空间、可用空间、文件系统以及文件系统类型。

  1. $ inxi -p
  2. Partition: ID-1:/ size: 324G used: 183G (60%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sda10
  3. ID-2: swap-1size:4.00GB used:0.00GB(0%) fs: swap dev:/dev/sda9

 

获取完整的 Linux 系统信息

使用 -F 选项查看可以完整的 Inxi 输出(安全起见比如网络 IP 地址信息没有显示,下面的示例只显示部分输出信息):

  1. $ inxi -F
  2. System:Host:TecMintKernel:4.4.0-21-generic x86_64 (64 bit)Desktop:Cinnamon3.0.7
  3. Distro:LinuxMint18Sarah
  4. Machine:System: LENOVO (portable) product:20354 v:Lenovo Z50-70
  5. Mobo: LENOVO model:Lancer5A5 v:31900059WINBios: LENOVO v:9BCN26WWdate:07/31/2014
  6. CPU:Dual core IntelCore i5-4210U(-HT-MCP-) cache:3072 KB
  7. clock speeds: max:2700MHz1:1716MHz2:1764MHz3:1776MHz4:1800MHz
  8. Graphics:Card-1:IntelHaswell-ULT IntegratedGraphicsController
  9. Card-2: NVIDIA GM108M [GeForce840M]
  10. DisplayServer: X.Org1.18.4 drivers: intel (unloaded: fbdev,vesa)Resolution:1920x1080@60.05hz
  11. GLX Renderer:Mesa DRI IntelHaswellMobile GLX Version:3.0Mesa11.2.0
  12. Audio:Card-1Intel8Series HD AudioController driver: snd_hda_intel Sound: ALSA v: k4.4.0-21-generic
  13. Card-2IntelHaswell-ULT HD AudioController driver: snd_hda_intel
  14. Network:Card-1:Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI ExpressGigabitEthernetController driver: r8169
  15. IF: enp1s0 state: up speed:100Mbps duplex: full mac:28:d2:44:eb:bd:98
  16. Card-2:Realtek RTL8723BE PCIeWirelessNetworkAdapter driver: rtl8723be
  17. IF: wlp2s0 state: down mac:38:b1:db:7c:78:c7
  18. Drives: HDD TotalSize:1000.2GB(20.0% used) ID-1:/dev/sda model: ST1000LM024_HN size:1000.2GB
  19. Partition: ID-1:/ size: 324G used: 183G (60%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sda10
  20. ID-2: swap-1size:4.00GB used:0.00GB(0%) fs: swap dev:/dev/sda9
  21. RAID:No RAID devices:/proc/mdstat, md_mod kernel module present
  22. Sensors:SystemTemperatures: cpu:56.0C mobo: N/A
  23. FanSpeeds(in rpm): cpu: N/A
  24. Info:Processes:234Uptime:3:26Memory:3188.9/7879.9MBClient:Shell(bash) inxi:2.2.35

 

使用 Inxi 工具监控 Linux 系统

下面是监控 Linux 系统进程、开机时间和内存的几个选项的使用方法。

 

监控 Linux 进程的内存使用

使用下面的命令查看进程数、开机时间和内存使用情况:

  1. $ inxi -I
  2. Info:Processes:232Uptime:3:35Memory:3256.3/7879.9MBClient:Shell(bash) inxi:2.2.35

 

监控进程占用的 CPU 和内存资源

Inxi 默认显示 前 5 个最消耗 CPU 和内存的进程。 -t 选项和 c 选项一起使用查看前 5 个最消耗 CPU 资源的进程,查看最消耗内存的进程使用 -t 选项和 m 选项; -t选项 和 cm 选项一起使用显示前 5 个最消耗 CPU 和内存资源的进程。

  1. -----------------Linux CPU Usage-----------------
  2. $ inxi -t c
  3. Processes: CPU:% used -top5 active
  4. 1: cpu:53.7% command: plugin-container pid:3066
  5. 2: cpu:20.0% command: java pid:1527
  6. 3: cpu:19.7% command: firefox pid:3018
  7. 4: cpu:4.6% command:Xorg pid:2114
  8. 5: cpu:3.0% command: cinnamon pid:2835
  1. -----------------LinuxMemoeryUsage-----------------
  2. $ inxi -t m
  3. Processes:Memory: MB /% used -Used/Total:3212.5/7879.9MB-top5 active
  4. 1: mem:980.51MB(12.4%) command: plugin-container pid:3066
  5. 2: mem:508.96MB(6.4%) command: java pid:1527
  6. 3: mem:507.89MB(6.4%) command: firefox pid:3018
  7. 4: mem:244.05MB(3.0%) command: chrome pid:7405
  8. 5: mem:211.46MB(2.6%) command: chrome pid:6146
  1. -----------------Linux CPU andMemoryUsage-----------------
  2. $ inxi -t cm
  3. Processes: CPU:% used -top5 active
  4. 1: cpu:53.7% command: plugin-container pid:3066
  5. 2: cpu:20.0% command: java pid:1527
  6. 3: cpu:19.7% command: firefox pid:3018
  7. 4: cpu:4.6% command:Xorg pid:2114
  8. 5: cpu:3.0% command: cinnamon pid:2835
  9. Memory: MB /% used -Used/Total:3223.6/7879.9MB-top5 active
  10. 1: mem:991.93MB(12.5%) command: plugin-container pid:3066
  11. 2: mem:508.96MB(6.4%) command: java pid:1527
  12. 3: mem:507.86MB(6.4%) command: firefox pid:3018
  13. 4: mem:244.45MB(3.1%) command: chrome pid:7405
  14. 5: mem:211.68MB(2.6%) command: chrome pid:6146

可以在选项 cm 后跟一个整数(在 1-20 之间)设置显示多少个进程,下面的命令显示了前 10 个最消耗 CPU 和内存的进程:

  1. $ inxi -t cm10
  2. Processes: CPU:% used -top10 active
  3. 1: cpu:53.4% command: plugin-container pid:3066
  4. 2: cpu:19.8% command: java pid:1527
  5. 3: cpu:19.5% command: firefox pid:3018
  6. 4: cpu:4.5% command:Xorg pid:2114
  7. 5: cpu:3.0% command: cinnamon pid:2835
  8. 6: cpu:2.8% command: chrome pid:7405
  9. 7: cpu:1.1% command: pulseaudio pid:2733
  10. 8: cpu:1.0% command: soffice.bin pid:7799
  11. 9: cpu:0.9% command: chrome pid:5763
  12. 10: cpu:0.5% command: chrome pid:6179
  13. Memory: MB /% used -Used/Total:3163.1/7879.9MB-top10 active
  14. 1: mem:976.82MB(12.3%) command: plugin-container pid:3066
  15. 2: mem:511.70MB(6.4%) command: java pid:1527
  16. 3: mem:466.01MB(5.9%) command: firefox pid:3018
  17. 4: mem:244.40MB(3.1%) command: chrome pid:7405
  18. 5: mem:203.71MB(2.5%) command: chrome pid:6146
  19. 6: mem:199.74MB(2.5%) command: chrome pid:5763
  20. 7: mem:168.30MB(2.1%) command: cinnamon pid:2835
  21. 8: mem:165.51MB(2.1%) command: soffice.bin pid:7799
  22. 9: mem:158.91MB(2.0%) command: chrome pid:6179
  23. 10: mem:151.83MB(1.9%) command: mysqld pid:1259

 

监控网络设备

下面的命令会列出网卡信息,包括接口信息、网络频率、mac 地址、网卡状态和网络 IP 等信息。

  1. $ inxi -Nni
  2. Network:Card-1:Realtek RTL8111/8168/8411 PCI ExpressGigabitEthernetController driver: r8169
  3. IF: enp1s0 state: up speed:100Mbps duplex: full mac:28:d2:44:eb:bd:98
  4. Card-2:Realtek RTL8723BE PCIeWirelessNetworkAdapter driver: rtl8723be
  5. IF: wlp2s0 state: down mac:38:b1:db:7c:78:c7
  6. WAN IP:111.91.115.195 IF: wlp2s0 ip-v4: N/A
  7. IF: enp1s0 ip-v4:192.168.0.103

 

监控 CPU 温度和电脑风扇转速

可以使用 -s 选项监控 配置了传感器的机器 获取温度和风扇转速:

  1. $ inxi -s
  2. Sensors:SystemTemperatures: cpu:53.0C mobo: N/A
  3. FanSpeeds(in rpm): cpu: N/A

 

用 Linux 查看天气预报

使用 -w 选项查看本地区的天气情况(虽然使用的 API 可能不是很可靠),使用 -W <different_location> 设置另外的地区。

  1. $ inxi -w
  2. Weather:Conditions:93 F (34 C)- smoke Time:February20,1:38 PM IST
  3. $ inxi -W Mumbai,India
  4. Weather:Conditions:93 F (34 C)- smoke Time:February20,1:38 PM IST
  5. $ inxi -W Nairobi,Kenya
  6. Weather:Conditions:70 F (21 C)-MostlyCloudyTime:February20,11:08 AM EAT

 

查看所有的 Linux 仓库信息

另外,可以使用 -r 选项查看一个 Linux 发行版的仓库信息:

  1. $ inxi -r
  2. Repos:Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/dawidd0811-neofetch-xenial.list
  3. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/dawidd0811/neofetch/ubuntu xenial main
  4. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/dawidd0811/neofetch/ubuntu xenial main
  5. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/dhor-myway-xenial.list
  6. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/dhor/myway/ubuntu xenial main
  7. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/dhor/myway/ubuntu xenial main
  8. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/official-package-repositories.list
  9. deb http://packages.linuxmint.com sarah main upstream import backport
  10. deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial main restricted universe multiverse
  11. deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
  12. deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
  13. deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
  14. deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ xenial partner
  15. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/qbittorrent-team-qbittorrent-stable-xenial.list
  16. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/qbittorrent-team/qbittorrent-stable/ubuntu xenial main
  17. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/qbittorrent-team/qbittorrent-stable/ubuntu xenial main
  18. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/slgobinath-safeeyes-xenial.list
  19. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/slgobinath/safeeyes/ubuntu xenial main
  20. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/slgobinath/safeeyes/ubuntu xenial main
  21. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/snwh-pulp-xenial.list
  22. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/snwh/pulp/ubuntu xenial main
  23. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/snwh/pulp/ubuntu xenial main
  24. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/twodopeshaggy-jarun-xenial.list
  25. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/twodopeshaggy/jarun/ubuntu xenial main
  26. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/twodopeshaggy/jarun/ubuntu xenial main
  27. Active apt sources infile:/etc/apt/sources.list.d/ubuntu-mozilla-security-ppa-xenial.list
  28. deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-mozilla-security/ppa/ubuntu xenial main
  29. deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-mozilla-security/ppa/ubuntu xenial main

下面是查看 Inxi 的安装版本、快速帮助和打开 man 主页的方法,以及更多的 Inxi 使用细节。

  1. $ inxi -v #显示版本信息
  2. $ inxi -h #快速帮助
  3. $ man inxi #打开man主页

浏览 Inxi 的官方 GitHub 主页 查看更多的信息。

Inxi 是一个功能强大的获取硬件和系统信息的命令行工具。这也是我使用过的最好的 获取硬件和系统信息的命令行工具 之一。

写下你的评论。如果你知道其他的像 Inxi 这样的工具,我们很高兴和你一起讨论。


作者简介:

Aaron Kili 是一个 Linux 和 F.O.S.S 的狂热爱好者,即任的 Linux 系统管理员,web 开发者,TecMint 网站的专栏作者,他喜欢使用计算机工作,并且乐于分享计算机技术。


via:

作者:Aaron Kili 译者:vim-kakali 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创编译,Linux中国 荣誉推出

本文永久更新链接地址:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-04/143117.htm

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本文由pc28.am发布于pc28.am,转载请注明出处:一个作用庞大的获取,Linux下基本的探索命令和查

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